Понятие права. Законотворческая деятельность.
Основной закон России и стран изучаемого языка.
Раскрыть скобки и вставить глаголы в правильном времени (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect)
1. Last year I attended court trials and increased my proficiency.
2. Before becoming Queen’s Counsel she had been working as a junior barrister for about 10 years.
3. I have already written a paper on Criminal Law.
4. Yesterday at 11 o’clock when you called me I was still writing the legal opinion for that case.
5. At present the police is conducting the investigation.
6. The Law Course develops the following basic professional skills of a lawyer: interviewing, advising, negotiating, advocacy.
7. One of the judges in this court has been working for 20 years.
1. Я законопослушный гражданин и всегда соблюдаю законы.
I am a law-abiding citizen and always keep the law.
2. Я изучаю право, потому что это очень интересно.
I study law because it is interesting.
3. Государственная дума собирается принять новый закон о военной службе.
The state Duma is going to adopt a new act of military service.
4. Суды – это государственные органы, которые применяют право.
Courts are state organs which pronounce on the law.
5. Если ты разговариваешь по мобильному телефону и ведешь машину, то ты нарушаешь закон. Это также очень опасно.
If you talk on a mobile and drive a car, you violate the law. It is also very dangerous.
6. Судьи не только применяют право, но и творят его.
Judges not only pronounce on the law, but also make it.
7. Президент не может сам отменить закон.
A president can’t repeal a law himself.
Государственное и политическое устройство России и стран изучаемого языка. Национальные правовые системы.
Российская правовая система.
Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте каждый параграф из приведенных ниже заголовков.
Criminal and civil law
Forms of legislation
The European Union law
Public and private law
The legal system in the United Kingdom
1. Public and private law
The study of law traditionally distinguished between public and private law. Public law relates to the state and deals with the disputes between citizens and the state or between one state and another. It includes constitutional law, administrative law, tax law and criminal law. Private law is concerned with the relationships between individuals and legal persons and includes family law, contract law and property law. Private law is also referred to as civil law. Civil law, in turn, is often contrasted with criminal law.
2. Criminal and civil law
English law is also classified into criminal and civil law, each with its own court system: the criminal and civil courts. The main distinction between civil (private) law from criminal law is that the legal action is begun by the private citizen against another citizen or group of citizens, whereas criminal law is enforced on behalf of the state. Criminals are prosecuted in the name of the Queen by the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS). The purpose of criminal law is punishment of the offender. If the victims of a crime want compensation for the injury, they must bring an action in the civil courts. The civil courts exist to resolve legal disputes between persons. Claims are initiated by the injured party – the claimant – against the defendant. However, each field of law can overlap with others. For example, a road accident may lead to a criminal prosecution and a civil action for compensation.
3. Common law
The legal system in England is based on common law. Common law consists of rules which are created and developed by judges. When a criminal or civil case is heard, the judge interprets existing laws and judicial decisions on similar cases and applies them to the case at hand. Depending on the court’s status, a new judicial decision establishes a precedent. This means that the decision of a higher court is binding on a lower court, and all lower courts must follow it until it is challenged by a higher court. This system is referred to as the doctrine of binding precedent or the doctrine of stare decisis. Thus, precedent is at the core of the common law legal system where judges may not only apply law, but also create new legal rules and principles. That is why, common law is often referred to as “case-law” or “judge-made law”.
4. Forms of legislation
Apart from case law, the other two major sources of English law are legislation and European Union (EU) law. There are two forms of legislation: direct (primary) and indirect (secondary or delegated). Direct legislation is in the form of the Acts of Parliament or statutes. Delegated legislation is passed by bodies authorized by Parliament to legislate. Delegated legislation includes bylaws, statutory instruments and professional regulations.
5. The European Union law
As a Member State of the European Union the UK is subject to EU law. The UK is bound by the Treaties of the European Union. EU law has supremacy over national law. This means that when there is a conflict between EU law and English law, EU law takes precedence. The UK is required to incorporate European legislation into its national law and to recognize the jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice in matters of EU law.
Подберите к каждому словосочетанию из левой колонке русские эквиваленты.
1. punitive sentencing Д) А) карательная мера 6.
2. punitive institution Г) Б) карательное воздействие 7.
3. punitive justice В) В) карательное правосудие 3.
4. punitive law Ж) Г) карательное учреждение 2.
5. punitive legislation Е) Д) лишение свободы как кара за совершенное преступление 1.
6. punitive measure А) Е) уголовное законодательство 5.
7. punitive treatment Б) Ж) уголовный закон 4.
Национальные судебные системы. Судебная система РФ. Преступление и наказание. Органы правопорядка.
Переведите предложения с русского на английский язык.
1. Вежливость является одним из шести обязательных профессиональных качеств юриста. Под ней подразумевается не простая любезность, а уважение к достоинству каждой отдельной личности.
Politeness is one of six main professional skills of a lawyer. It presupposes not a simple courtesy, respect of the dignity of each person.
2. В Великобритании существуют две ветви юридической профессии — солиситоры и барристеры.
In Great Britain there are two branches of legal profession – solicitors and barristers.
3. Основную часть устной работы солиситора составляет интервьюирование и выдача рекомендаций.
The main part of solicitor’s oral work is interviewing and making recommendations.
4. Барристер, собирающийся практиковать, должен сначала выбрать отрасль права, в которой он собирается специализироваться.
A barrister going to practice must first of all choose a law area he is going to specialize in.
5. Большинство солиситоров занимается частной практикой — либо самостоятельно, либо в составе юридической фирмы, являясь одним из партнеров.
Most of solicitors have a private practice – either themselves, or in a law firm being of the partners.
Вставьте подходящее по смыслу слова.
Vandal, murderer, hijacker, thief, counterfeiter, assassin, blackmailer, kidnapper, pickpocket, shoplifter, burglar, terrorist, stalker
1. thief steals.
2. blackmailer gets money by threating to disclose personal information.
3. kidnapper takes people hostage for a ransom.
4. Vandal deliberately damages property.
5. terrorist uses violence in order to achieve political aims.
6. hijacker seizes aero planes.
7. assassin kills people.
8. pickpocket steals purses and wallets.
9. shoplifter takes things from a shop without paying.
10. counterfeiter copies money illegally.
11. stalker follows and watches another person all the time in a threatening way.
12. murderer kills a famous or important person, especially for political reasons.
13. burglar steals from houses or offices.
Система и отрасли права стран изучаемого языка и России.
Переделайте предложения в косвенную речь
1) «Police work is very traumatic», they complained.
They complained that police work was very traumatic.
2) «We couldn’t stop him from shoplifting», exclaimed his friends.
His friends exclaimed that they had not been able to stop him from shoplifting.
3) «I will not make a statement to the police», said Fiona.
Fiona said that she would not make a statement to the police.
4) «It was me who set the fire to the house», said Harry.
Harry said that it had been him who had set the fire to the house.
5) «I stole the camera», John confessed.
John confessed that he had stolen the camera.
6) «Where is your family now?» he requested.
He requested where my family was that time.
7) «What motivated you to commit murder?», the police inquired.
The police inquired what had motivated me to commit murder.
«Do you have an alibi?», he asked.
He asked if I had an alibi.
Найдите для названий отраслей права (1-10) в левой колонке соответствующие определения (a-j) в правовой колонке.
1. Procedural law a) a) rules which determine how a case is administrated by the courts 1.
2. Public international law b) b) body of law governing relationships between states or nations 2.
3. Private international law f) c) body of law relating to the ownership of real estate, that is land and the buildings on it 7.
4. Family law g) d) body of law governing the relations between persons engaged in business 6.
5. Intellectual property law h) e) body of law governing the relationship between employers and employees, including the right to organize in unions 8.
6. Commercial law d) f) body of law dealing with disputes between private persons living in different jurisdictions 3.
7. Land law c) g) body of law related to family relationships especially divorced, child custody and adoption 4.
8. Employment law e) h) law that protects legal rights of inventors, creators and authors 5.