1. Read the text and translate the third passage of the text in writing.
Science and Technology
In recent years, scientific and technological developments have drastically changed life on our planet as well as our views both of ourselves as individuals in society and of the Universe as a whole.
Today, science and technology are closely related. Many modern technologies such as nuclear power and space flights depend on science and the application of scientific knowledge and principles. Each advance in pure science creates new opportunities for the development of new ways of making things to be used in daily life. In turn, technology provides science with new and more accurate instruments for its investigation and research. Technology refers to the ways in which people use discoveries to satisfy needs and desires, to alter the environment, to improve their lives. Throughout human history, men and women have invented tools, machines, materials and techniques, to make tbeir lives easier.
Of course, when we speak of technology today, we are looking at it in a much narrower sense. Generally, we mean industrial technology, or the technology that began about 200 years ago with the development of power-driven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass production of goods that has created the basis for our modern society. Today we often say that we live in an age of science and technology. According to one estimate, 90 % of all the scientists who ever lived, were alive and active in the 1970-s. This increased scientific activity has brought new ideas, processes, and inventions in ever-growing amount. The scientific revolution that began in the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together. Thus, Galileo, who made revolutionary discoveries in astronomy and physics, also built an improved telescope and patented a system of lifting water. However, it was not until the 19th century that technology truly was based on science and inventors began to build on the work of scientists. For example, Thomas Fdison built on the early experiments of Faraday and Henry in his invention of the first practical system of electrical lighting. So too, Edison carried on his investigations until he found the carbon filament for the electric bulb in a research laboratory. This was the first true modern technological research.
In a sense, the history of science and technology is the history of all humankind.
Конечно, когда мы говорим о технологии сегодня, мы смотрим на нее в гораздо более узком смысле. Как правило, мы имеем в виду промышленную технологию или технологию, которая началась около 200 лет назад с развитием механических машин, ростом фабричной системы и массовым производством товаров, которая создала основу для нашего современного общества. Сегодня мы часто говорим, что мы живем в эпоху науки и технологии. В соответствии с одной оценкой, 90 % всех когда-либо живших ученых, жили и активно работали в 1970х годах. Эта увеличившаяся научная деятельность принесла постоянно растущее количество новых идей, процессов и открытий. Научная революция, которая началась в 16 веке, была первым периодом, когда наука и технология начали работать вместе. Так, Галилей, который сделал революционные открытия в астрономии и физике, также соорудил усовершенствованный телескоп и запатентовал систему подъема воды. Тем не менее, только в 19 веке технология стала действительно базироваться на науке, а изобретатели начали основываться на работах ученых. Например, Томас Эдисон основывался на ранних экспериментах Фарадея и Генри в своем изобретении первой практической системы электрического освещения. Также, Эдисон продолжал свои исследования до тех пор, пока не открыл в исследовательской лаборатории углеродную нить для электрической лампы. Это было первым по-настоящему современным технологическим исследованием.
2. Answer the questions to the text in writing.
What role has scientific and technological development played in man’s life?
Scientific and technological development has played very important role in man’s life.
What proves that science and technology are closely related today?
Many modern technologies such as nuclear power and space flights depend on science and the application of scientific knowledge and principles.
What does the term «technology» refer to?
Technology refers to the ways in which people use discoveries to satisfy needs and desires, to alter the environment, to improve their lives.
What does the term «industrial technology» mean?
The term «industrial technology» means the technology that began about 200 years ago with the development of power-driven machines, growth of the factory system, and mass production of goods that has created the basis for our modern society.
How is scientific activity in the 1970-ies estimated?
According to one estimate, 90 % of all the scientists who ever lived, were alive and active in the 1970-s.
What facts prove that the scientific revolution of the 16th century was the first time that science and technology began to work together?
Galileo, who made revolutionary discoveries in astronomy and physics, also built an improved telescope and patented a system of lifting water.
What was the first true modern technological research?
Edison’s invention of the carbon filament for the electric bulb was the first true modern technological research.
8. How can the history of humankind be described?
The history of humankind can be described as the history of science and technology.
3. Translate into English:
1. За последние годы наши взгляды на жизнь на Земле, на человекакак личность, на Вселенную резко изменились.
In recent years our views on the life on the Earth, on a human as an individual, on the Universe have been drastically changed.
2. На всем протяжении истории человечества люди изобретали инструменты, машины, материалы, технологии и изменяли окружающую среду.
Throughout human history people have invented tools, machines, materials and technologies and have altered the environment.
3. Техника в более узком смысле означает промышленную технику,создавшую основу современного общества.
Technology, in a narrower sense, means industrial technology that has created the basis for the modern society.
4. Только в XIX веке техника стала действительно основываться наработах ученых.
Only in the 19th century technology truly began to build on the work of scientists.
5.Первым действительно научно-техническим исследованиембыло исследование Фарадея.
Faraday’s research was the first true scientific-technical research.
4. Fill in the gaps with a word built with the help of these word-building elements: -less, re-, -able, -proof, mufti-.
The words in italics will help you.
Change the form if necessary.
Oxygen has no colour and taste, but although it is colourless and tasteless we can sense immediately if it is missing in the atmosphere.
One can observe some organic molecules through a powerful electron microscope. But, normally, molecules are not observable, they are too small.
People in this area have to be multilingual. They speak the languages of the neighbouring villages.
Don’t worry about bad weather with these new synthetic materials. The house is completely weatherproof.
On board a spaceship in the absence of acceleration, objects and people weigh nothing. Weightlessness is one the main difficulties for astronauts.
The waste is processed for use as fertilizer. The aim to make 95% of it usable.
What if some fool presses this red button? — Don’t worry, this device is foolproof.
We considered this question last year and made a decision. Anyway, under the pressure of the new facts we have to reconsider it.
This criterion can be applied to any research paper. In fact, it is applicable to any paper which has a clearly defined purpose.
10.Don’t mind the water. This material is waterproof.
5. Read these definitions and choose the words that fit them.
Use the words from the box
There are three extra words
1. observation 2. condition 3. sophisticated 4. hypothesis 5. procedure
6. criterion 7. essential 8. phenomenon 9. applied
Those items which make up the environment of an object, substance or organism and which may have an effect on a process in which the object, substance or organism is involved e.g. the presence of oxygen (air) and water are a necessary condition for the rusting of iron.
A part of a whole is essential if, when removed, the identity of the whole is destroyed, i.e. the whole can no longer be identified, e.g. a wick is essential to a candle because if a wick is removed only a block of paraffin wax is left, which cannot be identified as a candle.
An idea that is suggested as a possible way of explaining a situation, or proving an idea, etc., which has not yet been shown to be true.
A rule, principle, definition or standard used to test or to assess a statement, fact or object for placing it into a class. E.g. the procedure for assessing speaking ability is both accuracy and fluency.
Any property we have knowledge of, directly or indirectly, through our senses, e.g. magnetism, mass, atmospheric pressure, electricity or gravitation is a phenomenon
The intentional use of the senses for a special purpose, e.g. when a seed is germinated, a student records the observation on the events and the changes in form which take place.
6. Read the text belowand look carefully at each line.There is a missing word in each line. Only one word is preferable.
Suppose we want to test the hypothesis that light needed for the leaves a young plant to become green.We obtain a plant and put it the dark. If the green colour fails to develop, we will conclude that light is needed it. We must obtain a second plant and put it in the light. We need this second in order to provide a standard with to compare the first plant. The second plant called the control. An experiment of this kind, in which the experimenter controls conditions, is called a controlled.
7. Use a, the or zero article to fill in the gaps.
On its way to (1) a near-Earth asteroid, (2) a spacecraft late last month took some 500 snapshots of a tiny rock called 431 Mathilde. After viewing (3) the images, which depict (4) a battered rock pitted with (5) — craters, planetary scientists had one key question: Why does this asteroid still exist?
(6) The craft, known as NEAR (near-Earth asteroid rendezvous), spied five craters more than 20 kilometers in diameter gouged into (7) the sunlit side of Mathilde which is about 50 km across. «This rock has been through collisional hell,» says Joseph Veverka of Cornell University, yet its surface indicates it has survived for at least 2 billion years, An initial analysis of radio wave observations suggests (8) a possible explanation. (9) The data indicates that the dark rock has (10) a low density, like that of (11) a pile of sand loosely bound by (12) — gravity. When (13) an object strikes such a body, notes Veverka, «it’s like hitting a sponge.» Rather than shattering Mathilde, (14) the shock wave from (15) the impact may be absorbed .